MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Location: file:///C:/AF521AB1/PACON2008Abstract1.htm Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" DEEP OCEAN WATER UTILIZATION AND CARBON TRADING - AN APPROACH TO HEL= PING HAITI



Gerard P. Pereira and Jack R. David= son

Energinat S.A. (ENASA)

Montreal, Quebec, CANADA<= o:p>



The Caribbean island = nation of Haiti is plagued by the desertification of its coastal regions caused by the trade winds and the deforestation of its mountains that has resulted in erosion a= nd pressures on existing resources causing water, food, and energy shortages. =  On the other hand, Haiti h= as a great and as yet untapped natural resource which can be used to ameliorate = many of these problems; this resource is its cold deep ocean water (DOW). Techno= logies have been developed in Hawaii= and elsewhere to use this water to provide the country with electricity, fr= esh water, air conditioning, agriculture and aquaculture, with little or no greenhouse gas emissions.  Ene= rginat S.A., a Haiti c= orporation, has developed a plan for an integrated system of a 'necklace' of sustainable DOW communities in five coastal desert locations <http://www.energinat.com>.  The planned 'necklace' of sustaina= ble DOW communities will be lighted, powered  and supplied with pure fresh water = by the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) process, which is free of the emissi= ons associated with fossil fuel electricity generation. The nutrient-rich 'used= ' DOW water of an OTEC plant can also serve as an artificial upwelling to create a very effective local phytoplankton atmospheric carbon sink as it is dischar= ged. The communities' cooling can be provided at savings of up to 90% of the ene= rgy costs associated with conventional cooling systems < http://www.makai.com/>, thereby causi= ng further significant reductions in carbon emissions. In these coastal desert locations the communities can grow almost any crop from any climate (largely self irrigating) using the cold agriculture technology and productive aquaculture enterprises can be established, all relatively emission free. <= span style=3D'mso-spacerun:yes'> The maritime transportation system planned by Energinat to connect the DOW communities with the ports of the country will conserve energy and reduce significantly consumption of fossil fuels and carbon emissions.


The problem is that <= st1:country-region w:st=3D"on">Haiti i= s one of the poorest countries in the world with most of its people living in direst poverty.   The world situ= ation, particularly since '9/11', provides few avenues for countries in Haiti's condition to find outside funds to undertake a national revitalization prog= ram of this scale.  However, the K= yoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows private entities in devel= oped countries to gain emissions credits for financing emission reduction projec= ts in developing countries.   Therefore, Energinat intends to establish a carbon trade niche and apply for carbon funding. The implementation of these DOW projects would make Haiti b= e part of the drive to reduce greenhouse gases, acquire clean technology in exchan= ge for the greenhouse gas emission reductions it will sell to developed countr= ies and show solidarity with the rest of humanity.  This paper will explore this proce= ss.