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As can be read in a 10 April 2014 article, a number of Caribbean island nations have announced plans to build ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants. For example, French defence firm DCNS Group is planning to build an OTEC plant on the Caribbean island of Martinique this year. Similarly, Ocean Thermal Energy Corporation aims to construct a pair of ten megawatt plants in the Bahamas and has recently signed a memorandum of understanding for a plant on the US Virgin Islands. Also, Bluerise is planning to build a 500 kilowatt OTEC plant near the island of Curacao.

In a 1999 article, long before any other Caribbean island nation, the Energinat Corporation had proposed harnessing limitless clean energy from the ocean with OTEC technology for the benefit of the people of Haiti. The Haiti project would involve building, as components of integrated deep ocean water (DOW) systems, at least five OTEC plants on promising geographic sites identified along the coast of the country. Awaiting the approval and political support of the Haitian government, it has not yet been possible to forge ahead with the project. We live in hope of starting the Haiti project before long.



Good news indeed! As reported in the April 16, 2013 edition of the Wall Street Journal, Lockheed Martin has recently signed in Beijing a protocol of agreement with the Chinese real estate Reignwood Group to design and build a floating 10-MW ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot plant for a green resort that the Reignwood Group plans to construct on Hainan Island located in the South China Sea. The offshore plant will provide 100 percent of the power needed for the planned green resort. The agreement could lead to the development of several additional OTEC power plants off the coast of the southern part of the People’s Republic of China, ranging in capacity from 10 MW to 100 MW, for a potential multi-billion dollar value. This project will hopefully pave the way for the establishment of land-based and near-shore OTEC facilities in five promising geographic locations identified along the coast of Haiti, facilities that Energinat has been proposing for the country over the past 15 years as main components of integrated multi-product deep ocean water (DOW) systems. Interestingly, because Haiti is the most favored nation in the Caribbean for access to deep ocean water, the offshore OTEC plants to be built would be located at only 2 to 5 kilometers from the coast, unlike the situation in the South China Sea where the 1000-meter isobath is between 30 and 70 kilometers from shore.



Energinat was delighted to find out in an article published in the 24th of February 2012 issue of Le Matin (one of the two national daily newspapers of Haiti) that the broad outlines of the last report for 2011 compiled by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and presented to World Bank staff and policy makers at a March 29 discussion were explained to the Haitian public. This report demonstrates that there will be no sustainable socioeconomic development without the greening of economies. Indeed, it shows that a transition to a green economy is a new engine of growth, a net generator of decent jobs, and a vital strategy for the elimination of persistent poverty and the reduction of CO2 emissions. According to the report the benefits associated with such a transition can be achieved by investing US$1.3 trillion a year (roughly 2% of global GDP) in ten sectors which include agriculture, marine fisheries, forestry, water management and infrastructure, renewable energy, green manufacturing, waste management, green buildings, green tourism, and transport utilizing clean fuel.
All the key findings of the UNEP report are consistent with the deep ocean water (DOW) projects that Energinat has proposed for Haiti over the last 15 years (see the Concluding Comments” section of this website).



The first edition of the Thetis International Convention on Marine Renewable Energy was held in Bordeaux, France, on January 11 and 12, 2012. Alain Juppé, Mayor of Bordeaux and Minister of Foreign and European Affairs, invited the various actors in the field of marine renewable energy, including the participants in our OTEC Discussion Group on LinkedIn, to attend this fully professional convention. This shows again the great promise of this emerging and dynamic industrial sector.


An invitation to be a speaker at the First Annual Congress of Marine Biotechnology held in Dalian, China, on April 25-29, 2011, was extended to Dr. Pereira, Energinat’s President & CEO. The purpose of the conference was to bring together scientists, managers, faculties, decision makers among all organizations engaged in marine biotechnology and encourage the commercialization of this technology. Dr. Pereira submitted an abstract which was accepted by a panel of experts. Regretfully, however, due to circumstances beyond his control, he was unable to attend the conference and make an oral presentation and had to have his abstract withdrawn.


After years of searching for models of sustainable marine economy, the Viet Trung International Investment & Trading Joint Stock Company in Hanoi, Vietnam, came to the conclusion, after studying in depth the Energinat website and admiring the wisdom and humanity which permeates through  the site, that the Energinat integrated deep ocean water (DOW) model system with an OTEC electricity and fresh water producing component was the technology of choice for a sustainable development project on Ly Son Island, a touristic and historical Vietnamese island located in the South China Sea. Consequently, the Director of the Hanoi company recently approached Energinat to explore the possibility of working with it and of utilizing its model system for the Ly Son Island development project.  He also indicated that the Viet Trung company works closely with the Energy Science Institute of Vietnam and enjoys good relations with the Vietnamese government which can provide funding from World Bank loans it receives to develop renewable energy.


Research scientists in the Caribbean island of Cuba are investigating the possibility of establishing OTEC plants in the seawater around the island. In an e-mail of 18 July 2010 to the President of Energinat, Dr. Julio Ernesto Diaz, a member of the OTEC Group of Cuba at the University of Matanzas, stated that he and his group were impressed by the volume of valuable and stimulating information contained in the Energinat website. Furthermore, since Energinat had, for along time, made plans to build OTEC plants on five promising locations along the coast of Haiti, Dr. Diaz expressed an interest in working with our group and in being integrated into our Haiti deep ocean water (DOW) development projects. As can be seen in an article in the Bohemia journal, the Cuban scientists have identified, like the situation in Haiti, five sites around Cuba that are ideal for the implantation of OTEC facilities. The promise of the OTEC technology for developing tropical island nations like Haiti and neighbouring Cuba is very great  indeed.


On January 22, 2010, Dr. Pereira, President and CEO of Energinat S.A., made a presentation entitled "Utilization of Integrated Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Systems: A Vehicle for the Blue-Green Renaissance of Haiti" at the invitation of the Haitian-American Association of Engineers and Scientists (HAES). The presentation was held at the SeaTech campus of Florida Atlantic University (FAU) in Dania Beach. Dr. Pereira and his corporation, as discussed in this website, has researched and developed extensive plans for the establishment of integrated deep ocean water (DOW) systems with an OTEC electricity producing component which can make a significant impact on development in five geographic sites of Haiti that lie adjacent to deep ocean and which will contribute greatly to the rebirth of the country, especially in the aftermath of the devastating and murderous earthquake of January 12, 2010. Below are comments made by some who attended the presentation.

"Thank you for a very informative presentation. I learned a lot of things I did not know before. Dr. Pereira, I am glad to see that the ideas and passion of the original OTEC creator, Jacques-Arsène d’Arsonval, have been reincarnated in you."  Ted Jagusztyn, Managing Director, Cotherm of America Corporation, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA.

"I have seen many descriptive talks about OTEC but none were as comprehensive as yours. I saw a number of slides I have never seen before. I especially found your photos and details re: cold water agriculture very compelling. Deep ocean water (DOW) holds great promise for the rebuilding of Haiti."   Richard A. Meyer, President, Ocean Energy Council, West Palm Beach, Florida, USA.


Hurricanes only form over warm ocean water heated by the sun to a temperature of at least 26.5oC (80oF). Each of these very large and powerful storm systems constitutes a mass of hot chaotic energy that can be tamed by using a cold source to convert some of it into a more coherent, ordered energy. The greater the difference in temperature between the hot and cold energy the more ordered energy can be produced. This difference is referred to as the Delta T or the Carnot efficiency and is given by the simple equation: Delta T = T1–T2/T1, where T1 is the absolute temperature of the hot energy and T2 is the temperature of the cold energy.


As reported by USA Todayof July 17 and Fox News of July 20, 2009, Bill Gates and some climate scientists propose to tame or slow hurricanes by pumping cold, deep ocean water (DOW) in their paths from a line of barges. The feasibility potential of this simple patented idea again shows the promise of DOW utilization.

On June 3, 2008, Dr. Pereira, President and CEO of Energinat S.A., presented a paper co-authored by Dr. Jack Davidson (Energinat's Vice President) and entitled "Deep Ocean Water Utilization and Carbon Trading: An Approach to Helping Haiti" at the four-day Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology (PACON) international conference on Energy and Climate Change held in Honolulu, Hawaii. Below is the comment (http://hawaiienergyoptions.blogspot.com/) made on the presentation by Doug Carlson, a media reporter and communications consultant in Hawaii.

We’ll end our PACON reporting by noting the efforts of Dr. Gerard Pereira, president and CEO of Energinat S.A., which intends to use ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) to end the crushing poverty of Haiti, his native land.

Pereira’s presentation noted that deforestation affects 95 percent of Haiti; once agriculturally rich, Haiti now has only a few areas where agriculture can flourish.

OTEC can be the key to resurrecting Haiti’s economy, says Pereira. Water depths of 1,000 meters are found close to shore, and there are five good sites where OTEC plants could be constructed to produce electricity, pure water for drinking and irrigation and, eventually, hydrogen for the coming hydrogen economy.

Sustainable clean energy is the key to ending poverty”, says Pereira, “and Haiti has an inexhaustible gold mine of possibilities through OTEC.


As reported in the "Aquaculture" section of this website, Royal Dutch Shell and HR Biopetroleum have announced the construction of a facility in Hawaii to grow marine algae (feedstock) and produce vegetable oil for conversion into biofuel. The facility will be built at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority (NELHA) on the Kona coast of the Big Island of Hawaii near existing commercial algae enterprises, primarily serving the pharmaceutical and nutrition industries. Marine microalgae have several advantages: (1) they grow very rapidly, (2) they are rich in vegetable oil and (3) they can be cultivated in ponds of seawater, minimizing the use of fertile land and fresh water. Indeed, they can double their biomass overnight and produce 15 times more oil per hectare than alternative sources such as rape, palm, soya or jatropha; up to 50% of an alga's body weight is comprised of oil. Unlike other biofuel feedstocks, such as soy or corn, they can be harvested day after day. Furthermore, algae cultivation facilities can be built in open-air, raceway-type ponds away from the farm lands and forests on coastal land unsuitable for conventional agriculture, thus minimizing the damages caused to the ecosystems and food chain systems. For these reasons, algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources especially for biodiesel production. One of the greatest advantages of biodiesel derived from algae compared to many other alternative transportation fuels is that it can be used in existing diesel engines without modification. Moreover, algae biofuel contains no sulphur, is non-toxic, is highly biodegradable and, therefore, is a much cleaner-burning fuel than petroleum-based diesel.

Energinat proposes to grow in raceway-type ponds high-yield, oil-rich marine microalgae specifically for biodiesel production in the five desert locations identified along the coast of Haiti and supplied with pumped-up, nutrient-rich deep ocean water (DOW). The development of such high-yield algae farms in these coastal desert regions could potentially provide the vegetable oil for producing enough biodiesel to replace completely the petroleum-based diesel used in Haiti as transportation fuel. To obtain this high production, in most cases, this would require feeding the algae with feed from commercial sources. With nutrient-rich DOW the algae would take much less, if any, commercial feed. With concerns over global warming, the algae farms will have the potential to capture and store large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels. For carbon trading, algae have the potential not only of producing diesel-type fuels with a very low CO2 footprint but of serving as a big substitute for the present footprint of fossil fuels. Click on above image to view a 26.5-MB video showing the rapid growth of marine microalgae in Cyanotech raceways equipped with paddle wheels and supplied with pumped-up deep ocean water at NELHA.

The foregoing will be part of an invited presentation at the Twenty-First PACON 2008 International Conference on Energy and Climate Change to be held in Honolulu, Hawaii, on June 1-5, 2008.


The most important greenhouse gas contributing to global warming is carbon dioxide (CO2), which is mainly emitted by burning fossil fuels. To offset greenhouse gas emissions, a new form of commerce, the carbon trade, was created to facilitate the buying and selling of the rights to emit greenhouse gases. Interest in carbon trading at regional level is increasing in America and Europe, because this market seems like a win-win situation: greenhouse gases emissions may be reduced while some countries reap economic benefit. Basically, there are two ways of trading carbon. The first is what is called a cap-and-trade scheme whereby emissions are limited and can then be traded. The second main way of trading carbon is  through credits from projects that compensate for or "offset" emissions. For example, the Kyoto protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows developed countries to gain emissions credits for financing projects based in developing countries.

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A project estimated at US$ 145 million to replace big, energy-gulping air conditioning systems in Downtown Honolulu buildings with a system that uses piped cold deep seawater is one step closer to reality. The proposed system will use a 4-mile-long, 63-inch-diameter intake pipe to collect seawater from a depth of 500 meters or 1,600 feet to cool  buildings in the downtown district of Honolulu. After running the cold seawater through a heat exchanger to chill fresh water that will be piped into Downtown buildings to provide cooling, the seawater partially depleted of its coldness will be returned to the ocean down to a depth of about 60 meters or 200 feet.




      French president-elect Sarkozy mentions OTEC in an interview with Mer et Marine  on May

      14, 2007.


"La mer tropicale est également une source majeure d'énergies renouvelables, malheureusement inexploitée aujourd'hui. Leur développement passe par une recherche appliquée pertinente sur l'éolien offshore, sur l'hydrolien et surtout sur l'énergie thermique des mers (OTEC), actuellement ignorée."


English translation: "The tropical sea is also a major source of renewable energies, unfortunately not harvested today. Their development requires applied research on offshore wind energy, currents (tidal) energy and especially ocean thermal energy (OTEC), actually ignored."



Energinat was delighted to learn in an article published in the 20th of March  2007 issue of Le Matin (one of the two national daily newspapers of Haiti) that the National Telephone Company of Haiti, Téléco, is contemplating adopting its telecommunications project, namely that of connecting our deep ocean water (DOW) sites plus all coastal villages, towns and cities with a necklace of submarine fiber optic cables that will be linked to the world via the transatlantic cables. This project was conceived in 1998 in close collaboration with world-class scientists and the supplier of optical line systems, Nortel Networks Corporation, and described in articles published on the Internet in 1999 and 2002 and in the Fiber Optic section of the Energinat Web site in which one can read, at his leisure, a detailed description of the project. Energinat hopes that, with this clarification relating to the facts, Téléco, as a local carrier of communication services, will respect the substance of its fiber optic project.





Energinat cannot but congratulate Téléco on having been inspired by its project and hopes the Haitian government will soon take measures to protect intellectual property and other property rights, a prerequisite for attracting investments. Indeed, echoing the words of William Arthur Ward: "Blessed is he who has learned… to follow but not imitate". Click here to read a letter sent by Energinat to the editor in chief of Le Matin which was published on page 2 of the 17th of April 2007  issue of the newspaper.


Click here to read a copy of a letter addressed to His Excellency René Préval, President of the Republic of Haiti, to ask for his political support for the Energinat projects and to seek the assistance of his government in our efforts to secure five geographic sites that lie adjacent to deep seawater, namely Mole St. Nicolas (Mole’s Cape), St. Marc’s Bay (St. Marc’s Point), Gonave Island (West Point), the northern coast of the Southern Peninsula (near Jérémie), and a coastal zone east of the city of Jacmel. These sites will be linked to all coastal cities, towns and villages by sea transportation and submarine fiber optic telecommunications.


Dr. Pereira, the President and CEO of Energinat S.A., was invited by Mr. Richard Bailey, President and CEO of Tahiti Beachcomber S.A. and owner of several luxury resorts in French Polynesia, to visit the Intercontinental Resort and Thalasso Spa Bora Bora, a five star hotel which opened on the French Polynesian island of Bora Bora in May 2006 and which is the first hotel in the world to use an air conditioning system with deep ocean water designed by Makai Ocean Engineering Inc. This system pumps cold deep seawater from a depth of 900 meters or 3,000 feet to cool down 80 top of the top, luxurious over-water bungalows, plus restaurants, kitchens, a thalasso spa and even staff housing, using noiseless pumps and titanium heat exchangers. Upon exiting the heat exchangers, the seawater partially depleted of its coldness is returned to the sea down to a depth of 45 meters or 150 feet. Seawater Air Conditioning (SWAC) represents an energy saving equal to 90% of the electricity that would be used by the hotel with the conventional air conditioning systems. A similar system will be used to air condition a lavish five star eco-hotel, called The Brando, slated to open in 2008 on the French Polynesian atoll of Tetiaroa (just 26 miles north of Tahiti), owned by the late Marlon Brando.


During his stay at the Bora Bora resort, which was already experiencing an average occupancy rate of more than 87%, Dr. Pereira had the pleasure of receiving a warm and a cold thalasso treatment at the Deep Ocean Thalasso Spa located in the heart of the resort and benefiting from the exceptional properties of the extraordinarily pure and mineral-rich deep ocean water. This thalasso spa is the first one to be built in the southern hemisphere and is the only establishment in the world using the curative benefits of seawater drawn from depths of over 800 meters.


This Bora Bora resort is the first true 21st century eco-resort. It represents a significant step forward in environmentally responsible tourism and provides concrete evidence that sustainable development can also save money, reduce maintenance and even yield handsome returns.


  • "I am a Saskatchewan farmer and have been to Haiti. Your project makes more sense than a lot of other solutions I have heard to revitalize Haiti."   Ken Wallis, D'Arcy, Saskatchewan, Canada.


  • Best of luck to Energinat. We need to stop portraying Haiti as the land of the poor but rather as the land of opportunity. You make me proud. Isn’t that what we need in Haiti, brains that make things happen? Great work and let’s hope to see a new Haiti in 10 years.”  Jean-Patrick Lucien (Haitian-born Massachusetts engineer, founder of EDEM Foundation)


  • A very impressive website – you had done considerable work. It is both informative and attractive. Good luck!” Dr. Joe Van Ryzin (President, Makai Ocean engineering Inc.)


  • "Congratulations on this initiative. This is another potential, environmentally friendly solution to Haiti's energy crisis, which does not rely on the importation of energy from other countries, while having the added benefits of helping to solve the water and food production problems... I would like to be involved in this project and contribute to its success." Max Everett Massac, P.E. (Licensed Mechanical Engineer, Miami, Florida)


  • I have been in Haiti… I am an Acadien… or Cajun in Louisiana… or sometimes marron… There is so much to do. Your salt project could put hundreds of proud people to work. Great web site! If I can help, feel free!!! J.E. Denis Robichaud (President, GEDEI Inc., Administrateur du Forum Francophone des Affaires)


  • “Great web site! Maybe I can give you a hand. Haiti is in terrible need of revolutionary approaches to leapfrog ahead of its troubles.” Ambassador Roger Noriega (U.S. Permanent Representative to the Organization of American States from 2001 to 2003, U.S. State Department's Assistant Secretary of State for Latin America and the Caribbean from 2003 to 2005)


  • “The concept of the DOW system presented in your project appears excellent and well adapted to the current reality of Haiti. Sustainable and clean energy would indeed be a saviour. I will continue to visit your great site.” Jean E. Saint-Vil (Networks of Centres of Excellence, Ottawa, Canada)


  • “Great web site! Everyone should be excited about the vision... With these deep ocean water projects Haiti will inspire the world and serve as a model as regards sustainable socioeconomic development... There is really great promise for Haiti to lead the way in relation to aspects of current human approaches to living on the planet.” Jennifer Mannall (Australian educator-environmentalist)


  • “I think you have a wonderful project that could save mankind. Why haven’t the powers that be run with this idea? Is it because they have too much to lose?” Peter Savo (Kwa Zulu Natal, Republic of South Africa)


  • “I draw comfort in knowing that you have been thinking about OTEC for Haiti… My vision, which runs along the same line as yours, is of a techno-organic culture, with eco-villages disseminated throughout the island, inhabited by folks that have a community of interest and that share a particular world view… The fiber optic layout certainly brings with it the Internet. In a country such as Haiti, that technology alone can change everything.” Henry Hogarth (Civil Action Coordinator in a Civil Society project funded by USAID as part of its Democracy Enhancement Portfolio)




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